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Female infertility

Causes of female infertility may include:
  • Ovulation disorders, which affects the release of eggs from the ovaries. These include hormonal disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome and others.
  • Uterine or cervical abnormalities, including abnormalities with the cervix, polyps in the uterus or the shape of the uterus. Noncancerous (benign) tumors in the uterine wall (uterine fibroids) may cause infertility by blocking the fallopian tubes or stopping a fertilized egg from implanting in the uterus.
  • Fallopian tube damage or blockage, often caused by inflammation of the fallopian tube (salpingitis). This can result from pelvic inflammatory disease, which is usually caused by a sexually transmitted infection, endometriosis or adhesions.
  • Endometriosis, which occurs when endometrial tissue grows outside of the uterus, may affect the function of the ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes.
  • Primary ovarian insufficiency (early menopause), when the ovaries stop working and menstruation ends before age 40.
  • Pelvic adhesions, bands of scar tissue that bind organs that can form after pelvic infection, appendicitis, endometriosis or abdominal or pelvic surgery.
  • Cancer and its treatment. Certain cancers — particularly reproductive cancers — often impair female fertility. Both radiation and chemotherapy may affect fertility.

These tests can also help diagnose or rule out a female fertility problem

  • Pelvic exam: Medical professional will perform a pelvic exam, including a Pap smear to check for structural problems or signs of disease.
  • Blood test: With the help of blood test you can know the hormone levels
  • Transvaginal ultrasound: Doctor inserts transvaginal probe into the vagina to diagnose any abnormality in the reproductive system.
  • Hysteroscopy: Medical professional inserts a thin, lighted tube (hysteroscope) into the cervix from vagina to examine the uterus cavity.
  • Saline sonohysterogram (SIS): Medical professional fills the uterus with saline (sterilized salt water) and conducts a transvaginal ultrasound. A full uterus makes it easier to see inside the uterus.
  • Hysterosalpingogram (HSG): X-rays capture an injectable dye as it travels through the fallopian tubes. This test looks for blockage of tube and abnormality of cavity.
  • Laparoscopy: Medical professional inserts a laparoscope (thin tube with a camera) into a small abdominal incision. Female pelvic laparoscopy helps identify problems like endometriosis, uterine fibroids and scar tissue (adhesion).
  • Medications: Fertility drugs can be prescibed to stimulate ovulation.
  • Surgery: Surgery can be performed to open blocked fallopian tubes and remove uterine fibroids and polyps. Surgical treatment of endometriosis doubles a woman’s chances of pregnancy.
  • Intrauterine insemination (IUI): Uses a long, thin tube to place sperm directly into the uterus.